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Situation in the presence of oxygen.


Lactic acid

A substance produced by the body from carbohydrates when an exercise is carried out without oxygen.



Situation in the absence of oxygen.



Adenosine triphosphate : the substrate that allows cells to transform energy for muscular contraction.


Isotonic drink

Isotonic energy drinks have the same molecular density (mineral salts, glucose) as blood. Their specific formula allows for a proper gastric emptying and an optimal intestinal absorption of nutrients.



Crystallised form of glucose.



Simple sugar obtained industrially from sucrose. Very common in nature, it is the sugar found in fruits. It has a very high sweetening power (110–170). Glycaemic index: 12–24.



Nutrients that must make up 50 to 55% of daily energy intake in a balanced diet.

A distinction is made between foods rich in complex carbohydrates (starches) and those rich in simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruits, sweets).

In a balanced diet, the most important daily intake should consist of foods rich in complex carbohydrates.



Simple carbohydrate highly present in many foods; its sweetening power is less important than that of other sugars such as sucrose and fructose. Sweetening power: 50–80. Glycaemic index: 100.



A form of carbohydrate storage in the body (in the muscles and liver).



A decrease in blood glucose level below normal.



Which has the same osmotic pressure as blood (same molecular density).



Nutrients that must make up 30 to 35% of daily energy intake in a balanced diet. The foods richest in lipids are fats (oils, butters, margarine) though they are also found in some other foods (cold meats, fatty meats, fatty cheeses, fried foods, pastries).



Maltodextrin is a carbohydrate derived from corn or wheat cereals, the starch of which is hydrolysed into smaller glucose chains. Its slightly sweet taste combined with its high glycaemic index is beneficial to athletes.



Nutrients that must make up 10 to 15% of daily energy intake in a balanced diet. Proteins are essential components of the body, especially muscles. The foods with the highest protein content are meat and its equivalents (fish, eggs, etc.), dairy products, pulses and soya.



Combination of fructose and glucose. It is extracted from sugar beet and sugarcane. It is also called “sugar”. Sweetening power: 100. Glycaemic index: 58–65.


VO2 max

The maximum volume of oxygen per unit of time that an athlete is able to use.